Since we found ziggurats (stepped pyramids), in Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, and the Americas, we can expect to find Cyclopean walls elsewhere than in ancient Egypt. Let's begin with the Incas in what is now called South America. The Inca culture and society was centred in Cuzco, now part of what we know as Peru. It's said that a fortress was being constructed near Cuzco, starting around 1470 AD. Here's what some of it looks like:

The purpose of this construction is military, not aesthetic, but even so, there is no comparison between this shapeless mass and what we saw at the Osirion in ancient Egypt. The common element is that both are mortarless fitted huge blocks of stone. The larger ones here are about six feet high and each probably weighs several tons. Here's part of a wall next to a city street in Cuzco:

Although this is a little better than the fortress construction we saw, it's still the same type of technique: close-fitting blocks of stone with partially dressed surfaces. There is some order but the blocks are not uniform in size or squared off. Here's what appears to be an even older, and better example:

Very little is known about the beginnings of Inca history. But it is a fact that the regime collapsed in 1532 AD after the arrival of Pizarro and the brutal Spanish conquerors. In my 'Is Our Civilization Dying?' we found that unless deliberately exterminated, such as Tyre by Alexander the Great, or Carthage by the Romans, societies seem to live about 1200 to 1400 years. It would not, then, be unreasonable to deduce that Inca society began in about the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

The Incas had their most sacred temple, the Temple of the Sun, in Cuzco. The Spaniards tore the temple down and built a monastery on the site. One version tells us the monastery was Dominican, another version says Benedictine:

But in 1950 an earthquake mostly destroyed the monastery. Underneath something else came to light:

Here is another part of this subterranean structure:

And one more photo of it:

Despite their immaculate finish, we're told these walls beneath the Sun temple were covered in gold when the Spaniards arrived, but the conquerors soon stripped them. It's remarkable that these earliest walls survived the earthquake intact, but the Spanish construction over them was mostly destroyed.

Machu Picchu was constructed on a mountainous site, difficult to access. The builders somehow conveyed there large numbers of granite blocks, some weighing 10 to 15 tons, all without wheeled transport, which the Incas did not have, and which might not have been of much help in such rugged hilly terrain with precipitous slopes. Here's just one example of this workmanship:

Apparently there is no certainty as to when this construction took place. It seems to me that the style and level of accuracy suggest it occurred some 200-300 years before the end of Inca society. The location is about 50 miles north from Cuzco. Incidentally, Nazca is about 200 miles to the west of Cuzco. The drill bits we saw were found about 600 miles north west of Cuzco.

In my 'The Immortals' (chapter 6), we discussed how some of the progenitors of ancient Greek culture seem to have moved to the Americas by about 1200 BC, and that may explain why this oldest, now subterranean, South American cyclopean stone work is so close to the style of the Egyptian Osirion. And as we've noticed elsewhere in our journeys into the past of civilized societies, the earliest work is generally far superior to that in the late stages of a decaying and dying society. Here we've found another example. The stone work closest to the demise of the Inca society, the fortress near Cuzco, is the poorest in design and workmanship.

Here's the Lions' Gate at Mycenae, dated to about 1200 BC, in what we now call Greece:

and the entrance:

We can see at once that this cannot compare with the precision of the Osirion stone work some 3000 years earlier in ancient Egypt, and about a thousand miles further south.

If we are searching for cyclopean walls in the Americas, the Incas may not be our only instance of this type of construction. In the next chapter we'll look elsewhere for another example.