In chapter 17 we left ourselves two difficult questions to answer. The first was: why are the very ancient walls or platforms constructed with massive stone blocks ('walls of Cyclops') to be found in South America, North Africa, and India. These constructions, which are about as far apart as could be on this planet, seem to date from close to 5000 years ago. That is bordering on the beginnings of civilized urban society. Where we do have earlier evidence of small towns, such as at Catal Huyuk or Jericho (both about 9000 years ago), Cyclopean wall structures have not been found. It would seem probable, then, that the two are not directly related. Whoever created the Cyclopean walls did not apparently collect together to form small towns out of villages, some of which developed into cities and became cultures from which our present civilized societies have derived. The megalithic (huge stone) sites are variously described as in relatively inaccessible places; as temples; or as associated with mortuary practices. They were not apparently adjunct to the then contemporary humanly inhabited locations. Nor do we seem to have evidence for a progression from building with small easily-manageable blocks of stone to massive constructions. These huge building-block creations are just there, with no discernable evidence for gradually improving technology.

This sudden appearance of a complete technology is not unique. We found the same sudden appearance of finely created stone drill bits complete with an augur for bringing material to the surface proving pre-historic down-the-hole drilling in South America. We found a cursus on Easter Island thousands of miles away from the greater and lesser cursuses near Stonehenge. We came across long straight tracks and huge creature drawings on the ground in England as well as at Nazca in South America. Our scholarship today has no reasonable explanation as to how these things came to be where they are, how they came to be apparently perfected technology, or what they were for. These creations seem to involve competent engineering know-how and in most cases an enormous number of man-hours to accomplish, and we don't know why.

Our second question difficult to answer was: why are there so many massive statues on remote Easter Island. The finest ahu or commemorative platform is said to be the earliest, over 1500 years old. It's also the one with the still-preserved Cyclopean stone block construction. Researchers tell us that the earliest statues were the smallest. They had individual markings on them, presumably as identifiers, since each was different from the others. They had long fingers and apparently long ears. Later the statues were more mass produced and were made larger and larger, with no differentiation of character. There was a tradition that the earliest inhabitants on the island, before the Polynesians came, had white skin, red hair and blue eyes. The Polynesians were impressed with these people and their technology. Selected members of the Polynesians' own society on the island underwent careful seclusion to try to emulate the white skin. and even kept some youths in the dark to try to make their skins white like the ancestors who came from the gods. The Pukao, or top knot on the statues was red to represent their red hair. A white skin story was also handed down in South America. Viracocha, the creator god of the Incas, was said to be white. We are told he existed on earth before the great flood.

In many cultures we found 'goggle eyes' or 'wheel eyes' as the ancient Greek poet Homer called the eyes of the giant Cyclops. These were carved on statuettes and statues in Mesopotamia, (where they were 'white'), in South America, Europe, and on Easter Island. When archaeologists there found such a carving with goggle eyes and showed it to nearby Easter Islanders they said "Make Make," and explained he was their creator god. Here's another goggle eye representation found by Thor Heyerdahl on the island:

Now we appear to have a choice to make between two explanations, both of which may seem unlikely. One is that the ancient hunter-gatherers and earliest herders and farmers created all these mysterious early monumental constructions. They must then have devoted hundreds of thousands of man-hours to dragging stone blocks often many miles, some weighing 100 tons or more, creating cursuses and straight lines running for many miles regardless of obstacles, as well as domesticating wild plants and animals for agricultural purposes. Yet none of these massive constructions were for human habitation. We don't even know where those who created these remarkable monuments lived. But the biggest stumbling block in attributing all this to the ancient hunter-gatherers, herdsmen and farmers, is that from then to now there is no evidence that these groups of people have ever built such things. Their very life style calls more for dispersal than aggregation of people. Hunter-gatherers require large territory, as do nomads moving flocks and herds around from season to season. Where today are the Cyclopean structures built by South African Bushmen, by Aboriginal Australians, by Maoris in New Zealand, by the Tuaregs in central Africa, or by Laplanders in northern Europe? There aren't any. Farmers need land space to cultivate crops. Their largest constructions seem to be barns for their animals and silos for their harvested crops. I suggest the logical conclusion is that humans 5000 or so years ago had no incentive or purpose or even know-how to create the constructions we have been describing. The question then becomes: if these things were not inspired, designed and created by then contemporary humans, who or what were their originators? Whoever they were they must have had the skills of engineers and architects on a grand scale. They may well have employed human labour to assist in the physical construction of some of the works, but I suggest the humans had neither the unaided skill nor the interest or experience for designing and creating these megaliths.

This evidence leads I believe inevitably to a different conclusion. The reasoning is this: if we look at past human grandiose constructions we know why they were constructed. The Roman aqueducts conveyed potable water to their city populations. The vast network of straight and durable Roman roads, cleared back for a certain distance on each side, had a simple purpose: the safe and rapid movement of Roman armies to maintain Roman rule in all parts of the Empire. The huge Coliseum was built to house spectators of various games, combats, hunts, and other entertainment for the citizens. But we have no understanding of the rationale for construction of miles-long cursuses, the proliferation of huge creature drawings and geometric designs on the level ground at Nazca or the White 'Horse' at Uffington in England, when these can only be seen properly from a few hundred or more feet up in the air. If these things had no place in human life of their times then I suggest the conclusion has to be that they were not human in origin. We have reached a phase in our civilization where we are already venturing outside our own planet. The general population now seems to accept as a fact that there were other-worldly visitors to this planet earlier in our history. Mainstream professional scholars still reject this concept as unnecessary and ridiculous, and impart this attitude to their students who themselves often become teachers, and so this interpretation is perpetuated, although a few have begun to realize and publish otherwise.

Once the fact of intervention in earlier human life on this planet is accepted, everything falls into place. Consider the evidence. Ancient Sumerian writers tell us that the ancient gods and goddesses changed the human species as they found it, taught humans everything they needed to know to become civilized beings, and incidentally to revere these alien beings and obey them in exchange for protection. In time this became 'worship.' The modified humans were taught agriculture, given domesticated plants and animals, alphabets, the arts and sciences and irrigation systems. But they had to make 'sacrifices' to these beings of the best foods and drinks that they won from agricultural and herding effort. How it was done and how governments were set up is detailed, for example, in the Biblical book of Exodus. In this book we find the Immortal Yhwh had the dissidents exterminated. He ordered a census and a poll tax. The 'stiff necked' people were brought to 'the fear of god' after experiencing the awesome power of the Immortal Yhwh. They agreed to become his subject people. He provided them with laws.

The Israelites were only the 'chosen people' of that particular Immortal. There were many other subject peoples of other Immortals. Problems multiplied as these subject peoples began fighting one another. Eventually it became such an uncontrollable mess that these beings apparently left this planet, more or less all at the same time. Granted that they existed here, we have to assume they were presumably aliens from a different world as we have no archaeological evidence for the gradual improvement of their technology which would indicate the development of an earth-bound superhuman race. The development of various locations around the world presented no problems to these beings as they proliferated here. In my The Obelisk I found the obelisk was a vehicle for airborne travel as described in the Bible, ancient Mesopotamia, and ancient India.

From various ancient cultures and their oldest sources we can obtain some information about these beings. They were apparently hairless; had ichor in their veins, not blood; consumed ambrosia but could eat food and swallow drink produced on this planet; were 'shining' or 'bright' to look at; had strange inhuman eyes; superhuman powers and intelligence; had vehicles to travel airborne at great speeds; kept well away from humans with their unwashed state and diseases; were relatively promiscuous; and were very long-lived, perhaps to thousands of earth years. They created civilized humans from what they found here. They mated at will with the best of their creations; divided up the world between them for ownership and governance; proliferated quickly; selected kings or rulers to administer each being's territory; selected personal attendants to prepare food for them and do their personal bidding, called priests; eventually left the earth as suddenly as they had arrived. Whether we accept it or not, that is what our own human ancestors tell us was what took place many thousands of years ago on earth.

Just to give one visual example as evidence of this interpretation of our earlier history, here's the lowest level of wall now identified as at Troy City. It's near the Dardanelles and facing the Aegean Sea, today in the nation of Turkey, said to be 50 feet below ground today:

It would seem the largest stone blocks are at the lowest level. It's now thought that Troy city was sacked by the Achaians, precursors of the Ancient Classical Greeks, in about 1250 BC or say 3550 years ago. Troy is said to have been founded about 3000 BC, or about 5000 years ago. Ancient Greek writers tell us the gods built these walls: the Immortals Apollo and Poseidon.

We have genealogies by ancient Greek writers for these gods and goddesses:

Uranus (male) and Ge (female) had 6 sons and 6 daughters, the Titans:

The 'Titan' sons were: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, and Cronos.

The 'Titan' daughters were: Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, and Tethys.

Cronos mated with Rhea and produced among others Zeus and Poseidon.

Zeus was famous for his many and varied matings; one of them was with Leto, (daughter of Coeus and Phoebe) which resulted in Apollo.

This tells us that Apollo was from a later generation than Poseidon, his uncle. Here then is one example of evidence for the ancient alien gods or Immortals constructing stone city walls for their human subjects. And we learn from Homer's Iliad that Apollo was one of those who supported the Trojans against their Greek attackers while others of these gods and goddesses had offspring among the Greeks and supported them. This type of situation, plus overcrowding, is apparently what caused these beings to leave our planet.

Now let's consider the situation at Easter Island. The Easter Islanders said they were descended from the Gods as did the ancient Egyptians and Inca, to take just two more examples. Thor Heyerdahl commented wryly that we believe we are descended from apes. All but 7 of the statues face inland, not out to the ocean. This tells us that those who created the statues and platforms for them were not primarily relating the statues to the ocean, but towards persons on the island. Only some of the statues had red topknots on their heads. At the NE side of the island there is evidence for AHU built over others, the later ones using small stones and not so carefully built. Apparently the original settlers were the statue builders. Then the Short Ears, the Polynesians, came to the island with a different language. The land from which Hote Matua (The leader of the original Polynesian settlers) came was said to have been named Marae-Toe-Hau = burial place. I suggest this tradition has become inverted, and that they found the land they had come to was a burial place. They were so overawed by the Long Ears as they called the statue builders they found there, and their statues, that they obeyed them and worked for them in the statue building operations, apparently for many centuries. Eventually they became disillusioned and tired of such work so they rebelled. By then the Short Ears were probably more numerous than the Long Ears.

The Easter Islanders' tradition says that when the Short Ears decided to rebel against the Long Ears, the Long Ears somehow got to hear about this and in the Poike ditch placed a great quantity of wood and other vegetation which they intended to set fire to if the Short Ears did attack. The Short Ears crept along both coasts but left some men before the Poike ditch for the Long Ears to see them. Then they attacked from both sides and from the rear of the Long Ears. The Long Ears didn't see them in time because they were fighting the Short Ears in front of them and before the fire they had now set. When they did turn to fight the Short Ears behind them they gave no ground and the Short Ears advanced from both sides. The Short Ears threw the Long Ears into the Poike ditch and the fires as if they were stones. The Long Ears were finished and died. The Poike ditch was filled and the good odour of the cooked meat of the Long Ears rose into the air. Three Long Ears escaped and hid in a cave. They were pursued and two of them killed. Only one man was left, Ororoina. The Short Ears were moved by his desperate cries and let him live. He married a Short Ear woman and had descendants. It's said that the Short Ears thought he had too many descendants so they put thirty of them in a house and set fire to the thatch. All but one suffocated.

Heyerdahl's expedition in 1955 dug down to what showed up underground at the Poike ditch as a great fire, and got a C14 dating of 1676 AD plus or minus 100, which seems to agree more or less with the islanders oral tradition. In about the mid-20th century AD the islanders said it was eleven generations back to the last Long Ears. If this tradition is true, then we have at best a half-descendant from the Long Ears, further diluted by a second massacre and much diluted again by small pox and slave traders.

The Poike so-called "ditch" was no ordinary ditch. Excavations at the site by Thor Heyerdahl's team gave a C14 (radiocarbon) dating of 386 AD (plus or minus 100) from the original ground surface at the bottom of the earthwork. This is the earliest of the radiocarbon dates Heyerdahl's group obtained on Easter Island. Much further down than the evidence of a great fire, the rock below had been cut to form a deep artificial trench with a rectangular bottom. It was twelve feet deep, about forty feet wide and nearly two miles long. This was a gigantic construction, it's been estimated over 700,000 cubic feet of material was moved. The archaeologists thought this estimate could be safely doubled. The construction was not continuous. It appears to have been a series of trenches each about 350 feet long separated by about 25 feet. There were 26 of these separate divisions or trenches in the entire almost two mile construction. The earth that was thrown up on each side of the trench on the hillside was a yellowish colour, with red soil and lava at the bottom of the trenches some 20 feet wide. So the final result would apparently have been almost a two-mile long broken line forty feet wide, yellow at the sides and red in the middle, cut across the eastern peninsula of the island. If the technical information in our day and age is about right, then the first thing the Polynesians did when they came to the island was move over 700,000 cubic feet of earth and rock and cut a punctuated series of trenches twelve feet deep twenty feet wide and totalling just under two miles in length. This doesn't make any sense and as there were many gaps it doesn't appear to have been a fortification.

It does make sense that this remarkable strip would have identified the island from up in the air. Half-a-mile north of Stonehenge, in England, is a very similar construction. It also is almost two miles long, it also has gaps along the sides. Trenches were originally cut, this time in chalk, 15 feet deep. The 'cursus' was 300 feet wide and the chalk at the bottom and thrown up from the trenches at the side would have shone in gleaming white. William Stukeley in the 1700s AD called it a cursus. That's just the Roman name for a racetrack. He called it that because he had no idea what it was, and he thought it looked something like a racetrack. This was another enormous earthwork construction. Armed forces practising aerial photography happened to take some photos of the Stonehenge area, and that's how we know now there was a second smaller cursus in the area pointing in a slightly different direction.

But that explanation of a racecourse will not do for Easter Island. There were no horses there in those days. And no Easter Islanders are known to have gone to England, or Britons to Easter Island before Captain Cook 1300 years later. The link between these two massive constructions is not in the human population living there, I suggest it is presence of the Immortals with their capability according to ancient writers of being able to fly from place to place with great speed, which ties together these two massive constructions almost 9000 miles apart. These 'cursus' constructions would enable the Immortals to identify each location from about a thousand feet or more in the air.

Tying in with this is the fact that it's quite unlikely that the earliest arrivals of Polynesians on Easter Island set to and built the retaining walls of the Ahu at Vinapu and Tahira -- a fully developed close-fitting wall system not seen anywhere in Polynesia, but seen in the pre-Inca construction of South America almost 2500 miles away. Later-period construction was crude by comparison.

And the Statues -- look at those pitiless clean shaven faces and thin lips. These are not Polynesians. We have seen faces like this before in ancient Sumer. The Easter Island statues also had strange eyes. The sculptural technology of construction of these statues is unique in Polynesia, or anywhere else for that matter. The much smaller statues found by researchers in the Marquesas Islands are dated to the 1300s AD and so are not the precursors of the Easter Island statues. The big mystery is why were these sculptures created there from blocks of stone weighing up to about 50 tons. It makes very little sense for Polynesians to be doing this -- it's a very time-consuming job and even if the builders did it with their superior stone technology, why did they do it? That is our second question from chapter 17.

The ancient Egyptians thought the Immortals were long lived, but could be killed or die naturally. [E. A. Wallis Budge (British Museum): Book of the Dead, Introd. (liv)]:

It was universally believed that Osiris was of divine origin, that he lived upon earth in a material body, that he was treacherously murdered and cut in pieces.

Ra or Re was chief among the Egyptian Immortals.

All chronological tradition there says Re once ruled over Egypt

[Budge Gods of the Egyptians, Vol.1 p.329]

and every human possessor of the throne of Egypt was proved one way or another to have direct descent or descent by marriage (from Ra).

[same text & volume p.374]


Had become old the divine one, he dribbled at his mouth, he poured out his exudations upon the ground, and his spittle fell upon the earth

That's from a very old Egyptian text. From our perspective, if he became old, it's reasonable to assume that eventually he would die.

For further proof to support the Egyptian belief that the Immortals could be injured or die, here's an abbreviated quotation from the Atrahasis, the Sumerian and Babylonian Flood story (see on this web site my Eden: Fact or Fantasy? p.9). I should introduce it by telling you that according to these almost 4000 year old texts, long before then, lesser gods were doing all the construction work for the greater gods, creating the vast irrigation systems that made the Tigris-Euphrates area so fertile. When finally they had enough, here's how they created the kind of man who would be capable of doing all that work:

(see on this web site my The Immortals, p.5)

Let one god be slaughtered...

So there is ancient evidence that the Immortals could be killed and could grow old, and therefore eventually presumably die.

We hear little or nothing about the actual death of Immortals, though. This was something they must have kept to themselves. There is no evidence for state funerals by their subject people, no recording of their deaths anywhere. What happens is that in ancient literature the earliest Immortals are just not heard of any more and then the next generation is in the news, and then the generation after that. If they did die, it was a private circumstance among the Immortals themselves. And that's where I suggest Easter Island played a part.

Here's a sketch of the Island:

You can see the Long Ears' Poike cursus at the upper right of the map, stretching across the island. You can also see many statues, which the map tells us were 'often in groups.' They cover almost the whole suitable coastline. This caused one researcher on first arriving to comment that the entire island seemed to be a giant cemetery.

That I suggest is our clue to what was occurring on the island. If the Immortals did eventually die, and if air travel was normal for them, then it's understandable why they used remote Easter Island as a private mausoleum. It kept the eventual death of these beings away from their human subjects. They probably brought some humans (who would be marooned there) to do the work for them, before the Polynesians came. Their original statues and cremations were not apparently on a grandiose scale. But once they had left planet earth, their personal attendants on the island, no doubt with some of whom they had mated, produced half immortals and more remote descendants who at first cremated and later buried their own dead, following on the statue-building tradition amongst themselves. Meanwhile the traffic-congested site at Nazca seems to suggest this was the departure point for these beings, the various designs created to identify collection points for different groups.

We have now answered the two difficult questions we listed at the end of chapter 17:

1. Why were the huge stone block and platform constructions erected on different continents when humans at the time had no need for or expertise to create such massive projects? The simple answer is that humans did not engineer them though they probably acted as labourers for part of the work. The strange otherworldly beings called ancient gods and goddesses or Immortals were responsible, as ancient writers tell us they were.

2. Why are there massive platforms and statues with huge topknots on so remote a place as Easter Island? The answer is the ancient gods and goddesses or Immortals used the island as a cemetery. Their memorials were relatively modest in size, but after their departure descendants carried the work to a feverish extreme until stopped by a civil war.

The alternative is to dismiss all this evidence as ridiculous, which means having to try to explain the existence of these intelligently created phenomena as part of our ancestors' evolutionary progress, which obviously they are not. And that is why scholars who cling to the older conventional view and say the megalithic works we have discussed were created by humans, have no intelligent answer for our simple direct question: then how and why did the ancient humans do it?

If you have read on this website my From Chimps to Humans, The Immortals, The Mysterious Cursus, The Obelisk, The Problem of Nazca, and now The Immortals Part Two, I suggest you are in a position to decide for yourself which interpretation you think is closer to the truth.